Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor; Political Science Department, Semnan University

2 M.A of Economics; University of Semnan


It seems that the most significant event during the last two decades in Middle East
must be sought in the Arabic Spring. Undoubtedly, this has been resulted in many
changes in the field of Middle East studies: either theoretical or practical levels. The
countries which have a traditional nature, such as the Persian Gulf Monarchies, and
a military- bureaucratic nature, such as Egypt, have been severely influenced by the
revolutionary movement. However, there are no good prospects for a democratic
transition– at least in the short term– since the Movement, especially in Egypt, has
been suppressed by the Army. In fact, we must wait for developments in future. The
question here is that why, despite the full global support of the democratization
process in the Middle East, the region has failed to access a successful transition to
democracy and political stability? Or, why exist so highly the authoritarianism and
violence? To focus on the Amartya Sen's theory of development as freedom, this
article believes that although they could gain a good level of economic development,
but they are grappling with authoritarianism and despotism due to the lack of
progress in human development indicators.


الف) فارسی
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ب) خارجی
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