Document Type : Research Paper
Assistant Professor; Political Science Department, University of Tehran
Assistant Professor; University of Kabul Afghanistan
The formation of power in Afghanistan is affected by the socio-traditional structure of the country. The elite, the spirituals and, in the last decades, the jihadists form the main social structure in Afghanistan. At some periods in the history of this country – like when Shah Amanullah (1298 1307) and Mohammad Zaher Shah (1342 1352) were reigning, efforts were made to introduce some changes in the political structure from tradition to modernity, but because the middle class had not yet grown and the organized social groups had yet to be formed, the innovative efforts could not sustain itself. The reformists’ efforts could only affect a little the formation of new educated clusters such as the intellectuals, the technocrats and the bureaucrats; thus, the political structure became more flexible and sharing at the same rate.
The power structure turned into an authoritative entity owing to the supremacy the traditional groups enjoyed. Therefore, the government was not able to initiate indexes of political development like institutionalization, rationalization of decision making process and increase in the political participation.