Did The Fourth Awakening In The Middle East Happen In The Persian Gulf?

Document Type : Research Paper

Author

Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

The post-2011 uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have been the awakening of the Arab population who have lived under the rule of dictators for more than four decades, as the post-colonial period. The world has; furthermore, witnessed nothing less than the awakening of the dignity, civil and democratic rights, social and economic justice, national self-determination, Sharia legitimacy of authority and, ultimately pluralism in the framework of a political system during the "post post-colonial" period. This was not the first time people in the MENA had taken to the streets demanding fundamental changes. The first Arab Awakening, as a new pan-Arab consciousness, reflected an outbreak of nationalist sentiment against European masters. The desire to create one pan-Arab state, derived from the Arab national ethnicity, from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire’s Arabic-speaking provinces was dashed at the altar of British and French ambition. These states, mostly successors of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, maintained a supra-state identity, despite inter-Arab leadership competition during the 1950s and 1960s. The second wave of Arab Awakening rose against Arab governments that were doing the bidding of colonial powers. The differentiating factor was between Arab nationalist republics, usually quasi-socialist and Pan-Arabist in orientation. Now, there are numerous signs that the next wave of revolutionary upsurge may soon be on the agenda in the Persian Gulf Sheikhdoms that could be entitled the Fourth Arab Awakening.

Keywords


. احمدی، حمید (1390) ”موج سوم بیداری عرب ؛ریشه یابی قیام های اخیر در کشورهای عربی“، پژوهشکده مطالعات استراتژیک خاورمیانه، 3 اردیبهشت ماه.
2. دیویدسون، کریستوفر (1392)  دومینوی سقوط در خلیج فارس؛ بیداری چهارم در خاورمیانه، ترجمه هوشی سادات، محمد، انتشارات مؤسسه بین المللی ابرار معاصر تهران.
3. فاست، لوئیس (1386)  روابط بین‌المللی خاورمیانه، ترجمه سلطانی نژاد، احمد، ‌دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین‌‌المللی، تهران.
 
4. Abdul Hadi, Mahdi (2013) “The Second Arab Awakening”, 2nd edition, Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs/ PASSUA, Al-Quds.
5. Acemoglu, Daron and Robinson, James (2005) Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy, Cambridge University Press, UK.
6. Ajami, Fouad (2012) “The Arab Spring at One” , Foreign Affairs, MAR/APR
7. Ayub, Fatima (2013) “What Does The Gulf Think About The Arab Awakening?”, European Council on Foreign Relations, Gulf Analysis, April.
8. Barnett, Michael (1998) Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order, New York: Columbia University Press, USA.
9. Bayat, Asef(2007) Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and the Post-Islamist Turn, Stanford University Press, USA.
  10. Davidson, Christopher (2011) “The Great Arab Revolution and the Gulf States”, Current Intelligence,January 31st.
11. Davidson, Christopher (2012) “Yes, the Gulf monarchs are in trouble”, Foreign Policy,November 13th.
 12. Davidson, Christopher (2013a) After the Sheikhs: The Coming Collapse of the Gulf Monarchies, London: Hurst, UK.
13. Davidson, Christopher (2013b), “The Last of the Sheiks?”, New York Times, October 18th.
14. Dodge, Toby (2012) “After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East?” inKitchen, Nicholas (eds.) the Middle East after the Arab Spring IDEAS reports, Special reports, SR011, LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science.
15. El Alaoui, Hicham Ben Abdallah (2013) “Are the Arab monarchies next?,” Le Monde diplomatique, January.
16. Fisk, Robert (2011) “a Second Arab Awakening in contemporary Arab history”, The Independent, March 15th.
17. García, Luz Gómez (2012) “Post-Islamism, the Failure of an Idea: Regards on Islam and Nationalism from Khomeini’s Death to the Arab Revolts,” Religion Compass, Vol. 6, Issue. 10, pp. 451–466.
18. G. Khouri, Rami (2011) “The Arab Awakening,” The Nation, September 12th.
19. Giddens, Anthony and Pierson, Christopher (1998) Conversations with Anthony Giddens: making sense of modernity, Stanford University Press, USA.
20. Guzansky, Yoel and Berti, Enedetta (2013) “The Arab Awakening Cascade of Failing States: Dealing with Post-Revolutionary Stabilization Challenges”, Harvard Journal of Middle Eastern Politics and Policy, April 12th.
21. Hashemi, Nader (2013) “The Arab Spring Two Years On: Reflections on Dignity, Democracy and Devotion”, The Ethics & International Affairs, the journal of the Carnegie Council, May 13th.
22. Havva, KÖK (2007) “Reducing Violence: Applying the Human Needs Theory to the Conflict in Chechnya”, Review of International Law and Politics (RILP), Vol. 3, No. 11, pp. 89-108.
23. Hinnebusch, Raymond (2003) The international politics of the Middle East, Manchester University Press, UK. 
24. International Energy Agency_ IEA (2013) “How will global energy markets evolve to 2035?”, World Energy Outlook 2013 Factsheet, Paris, France.
25. Pope, Laurence (2011) “The Second Arab Awakening”, The New York Times, February 18th.
26. Kerr, Malcolm (1965) The Arab Cold War, 1958-1964: A Study of Ideology in Politics, Oxford University Press, UK.
27. Krane, Jim (2012) Energy Policy in the Gulf Arab States: Shortage and Reform in the World’s Storehouse of Energy, Judge Business School, Cambridge University, UK.
28. Mahdavi, Mojtaba (2013), “Muslims and Modernities: From Islamism to Post-Islamism?,” Religious Studies and Theology, Vol 32, No 1.
29. M. Levins, Charlotte (2013) “The Rentier State and the Survival of Arab Absolute Monarchies”, Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 14, May.
30. Maslow, Abraham (1943) “A theory of human motivation,” Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–96  Retrieved from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm.
31. Maslow, Abraham (1954) Motivation and personality, New York: Harper, USA.
32. Matthiesen, Tobias (2012) “A Saudi spring? The Shia protest movement in the Eastern Province 2011-2012,” Middle East Journal, 66(4).
33. Muasher, Marwan (2013) “Year Four of the Arab Awakening”, Carnegie Endowment For International Peace, December 12th.
34. Muasher, Marwan (2014) The current Arab Awakening and the Battle for Pluralism, Yale University Press, USA.
35. Owen, Roger (2012) The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life, Harvard University Press, USA.
36. Ramadan, Tariq(2012) Islam and the Arab Awakening, Oxford University Press, UK.
37. R. Beissinger, Mark (2012) “Russian Civil Societies, Conventional andVirtual”, Taiwan Journal ofDemocracy, No.2, December, pp. 91‐104.
38. Reem, Alissa (2013) “Building for Oil: Corporate Colonialism, Nationalism and Urban Modernity in Ahmadi, 1946-1992”,The Association for Gulf and Arabian Peninsula Studies/ AGAPS PhD Dissertation Award 2013: Winner, Journal of Arabian Studies, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, December.
39. Reus-Smit, Christian (2009) “Constructivism”, in Burchill, Scott et. al., Theories of International Relations, Palgrave Macmillan, USA.
40. Sarıhan, Ali (2012) “Is the Arab Spring in the Third Wave of Democratization? The Case of Syria and Egypt,” Turkish Journal of Politics, Vol. 3, No. 1, Summer.
41. Shadi, Hamid (2011) Why the Middle East Monarchies Might Hold On, Brookings. March 8th.
42. Trimberger, Ellen Key (1978) Revolution from Above: Military Bureaucrats and Development in Japan, Turkey, Egypt, and Peru, NJ: Transaction Publishers, USA.
43. Ulrichsen, Kristian Coates (2012)“Small states with a big role: Qatar and the UAE in the aftermath of the Arab spring, Durham University Sheikh Nasser al-Mohammad Al-Sabah Publication Series 3, September.
44. V. Korotayev, Andrey and V. Zinkina, Julia (2011) “Egyptian revolution: a demographic structural analysis”, Contemporary World, Spring.
45. Welzel, Christian (2009) Theories of Democratization, Oxford University Press, UK.
Volume 45, Issue 4 - Serial Number 4
January 2016
Pages 1053-1074
  • Receive Date: 16 December 2014
  • Revise Date: 30 December 2015
  • Accept Date: 12 July 2015
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2015