Did The Fourth Awakening In The Middle East Happen In The Persian Gulf?

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The post-2011 uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have been the awakening of the Arab population who have lived under the rule of dictators for more than four decades, as the post-colonial period. The world has; furthermore, witnessed nothing less than the awakening of the dignity, civil and democratic rights, social and economic justice, national self-determination, Sharia legitimacy of authority and, ultimately pluralism in the framework of a political system during the "post post-colonial" period. This was not the first time people in the MENA had taken to the streets demanding fundamental changes. The first Arab Awakening, as a new pan-Arab consciousness, reflected an outbreak of nationalist sentiment against European masters. The desire to create one pan-Arab state, derived from the Arab national ethnicity, from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire’s Arabic-speaking provinces was dashed at the altar of British and French ambition. These states, mostly successors of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, maintained a supra-state identity, despite inter-Arab leadership competition during the 1950s and 1960s. The second wave of Arab Awakening rose against Arab governments that were doing the bidding of colonial powers. The differentiating factor was between Arab nationalist republics, usually quasi-socialist and Pan-Arabist in orientation. Now, there are numerous signs that the next wave of revolutionary upsurge may soon be on the agenda in the Persian Gulf Sheikhdoms that could be entitled the Fourth Arab Awakening.


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