Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor; Department of Political Science and International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Relations, Islamic Azad University, Branch of Isfahan, Iran


The Indian Ocean has received new attention over the recent years because of its economic and strategic importance. The region is seen as a theatre for great power rivalries mainly among the United States, China, and India. In this regard, this paper assesses how the Indian Ocean region is coping with the challenges of global powers such as the U.S, India and China and its very different effects on states and ports around the ocean’s rim. Therefore, it seems that the Indian Ocean is becoming a more critical area in the 21st century, when measured by the international energy and commerce that crosses its waters. It is important to emphasize that the Indian Ocean’s strategic economic value is linked primarily to global trade; less than one-quarter of its trade is among the littoral states, and the economic value of coastal subsistence activities is a modest portion of national income. In view of this importance, the present article reviews the importance of the Marine Zone, dimensions and dynamics of each of the countries under study, with a focus on the United States of America.


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