Document Type : Research Paper


Assistance Professor; Political Science Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman


The aim of policy research is to provide scientific and operational advice to policymakers. Policy researches seek to assess the factors that influence policies and analyses the impacts of policies on society. Many different methods are utilized in this field. The complexities of the public policy environment and dimensions of policy issues require policy analysts to use appropriate methodological approaches. Among these methods, Meta synthesis by use of scientific and systematic methods combines the finding of researches in a particular issue and shows them to policy makers. This method has a key role in explanation of various aspects of complicated policy problems, facilitates policy learning and notifies policy makers. Recognizing the need to develop the methodology of Meta synthesis, this article aims to explain the Meta synthesis, procedures and benefits, and provides examples of the application of this method in public policy.


  1. الف) فارسی

    1. ماژرزاک، آن (1392)، پژوهش و سیاستگذاری، ترجمۀ هوشنگ نایبی، تهران: نشر نی.
    2. عرب، سید محمد؛ ابراهیم‌زاده، رضا؛ مروتی شریف‌آبادی، علی (1393)، «طراحی مدل فراترکیب عوامل مؤثر بر طلاق با مرور نظام­مند مطالعه­های پیشین» مجلۀ تخصصی اپیدمیولوژی ایران، دورۀ 10، ش 4، ص 22-10.
    3. نیرومند، پوراندخت؛ رنجبر، محبوبه؛ سعدی، محمدرضا؛ امیرشاهی، میراحمد (1391)، «شناسایی و طبقه‌بندی مدل‌ کسب‌وکار موبایل مبتنی بر رویکرد فراترکیب»، فصلنامۀ علمی- پژوهشی مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دورۀ 4، ش 10، ص 203-181.

    ب) لاتین

    1. Beck, C (2002), “Mothering multiples: a Meta synthesis of Qualitative research”, MCN, the American journal of maternal/child Nursing, 28(2): 93-99.
    2. Bench, S. ; Day, T. (2010), “The user experience of critical care discharges: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research”, International journal of nursing studies, 47(4): 487-499.
    3. Boundas, T.; Hall, E. O. C. (2007), “challenges in approaching meta synthesis research”, qualitative health research, 17(1): 113-121.
    4. Campbell, R.; Pound, P.; Pope, C.; Britten, N.; Pill, R.; Morgan, M.; Donovan, J. (2003), “evaluating meta ethnography: a synthesis of qualitative research on lay experienced of diabetes and diabetes care”. Social science and medicine, No. 56, 671-684.
    5. Dunn, W (2007), public policy analysis: an introduction, (4 Ed) Pearson prentice hall.
    6. Finfgeld D. L. (2003), “Meta synthesis: The state of the art-so far”, Qualitative Health Research, No.13: 893-904.
    7. Jensen, L.; Allen, M. (1996), “Meta- synthesis of qualitative findings”, Qualitative Health Research, 6(4): 553-560.
      1. Kezar, Adrianna J. ;. Eckel, Peter D. (2004), “Meeting Today's Governance Challenges: A Synthesis of the Literature and Examination of a Future Agenda for Scholarship”, The Journal of Higher Education, 75(4): 371-399.
      2. Lee, J. (2010), “10 year retrospect on stage models of e-Government: A qualitative meta-synthesis”, Government Information Quarterly, 27 (3), 220-230.
      3. lewis, j. (2011), “the future of network governance research: strengthing diversity and synthesis”. Public Administration. 89(4):1221-1234.
      4. Morse, J. M. (1997), “considering theory derived from qualitative research”, In J. m, Morse (Ed) completing a qualitative project: details and dialogue (pp. 163-188) thousand Oaks, CA: sage.
      5. Niemi, Richard G. (1986), “Series editor's introduction”, In Fredric M. Wolf (Ed.), Meta-analysis—quantitative methods for research synthesis (pp.4-5), London: Sage.
      6. Noblit, G.W; Hare, R.D. (1988), meta Ethnography: synthesizing qualitative studies. Newbury park, CA: stage.
      7. Paterson, B; Thorne, Calnan, C; Jillings. C. (2001), meta-study of qualitative health research: a practical guide to meta-analysis and meta-synthesis California Sage.
      8. Paterson, B. L. (2007), “coming out as ill: Understanding self-disclosure in chronic illness from a meta-synthesis of qualitative research”. In C. Webb & B. Roe (Eds.), Reviewing research evidence for nursing practice: Systematic reviews (pp. 73–87). London: Blackwell.
      9. Paterson, B. L., Canam, C., Joachim, G.,; Thorne, S. (2003), “Embedded assumptions in qualitative studies of fatigue”, Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(2):1-15.
      10. Patock, V. (2010), “barriers to corporate social responsibility implementation: a qualitative Meta synthesis, thesis”, in economy and business, university of Amsterdam.
      11.  Puaschunder, Julia M. (2012), “When Investors Care about Politics: A Meta-Synthesis of Political Divestiture Studies on the Capital Flight from South Africa during Apartheid”, Harvard University September 18, 2012.
      12. Sandelowski, M.; Barros, J. (2007), Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research, Springer publishing company Inc.
      13. Sandelowski, M.,; Barroso, J. (2003), “Classifying the findings in qualitative studies”, Qualitative Health Research, No. 13: 905-923.
      14. Tang, Xijin (2009), Qualitative Meta-synthesis Techniques for Analysis of Public Opinions for in-depth Study”, Complex (2), volume 5 of Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, pp: 2338-2353. Springer.
      15. Webb C.; Roe, B. (Eds) (2007), Reviewing Research Evidence for Nursing Practice, Oxford: Blackwell.
      16. Wildavsky, A. (I979), Speaking Truth to Power. Boston: Little, Brown and Co. (Published in Britain as the Art and Craft of Policy Analysis, London: Macmillan I980).
      17. Wood, P. (2000), “Meta-analysis”. In Glynis M. Breakwell, Sean Hammond & Chris Fife-Schaw (Eds.), Research methods in psychology (2nd edition) (pp.414-425). London: Sage.
      18.  Yick, Alice G. (2013), “A Meta synthesis of Qualitative Findings on the Role of Spirituality and Religiosity Among Culturally Diverse Domestic Violence Survivors”, Health Policy & Services, 37 out of 70
      19. Zimmer L. (2006), “Qualitative meta-synthesis: a question of dialoguing with texts”, Journal of Advanced Nursing 53(3): 311-318.