Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor; Department of Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran

2 Phd, Department of Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran


Since 1970s even while the central government has increased the number of rules and regulations protecting the fragile environment in Iran, the severity of long-term environmental policy challenges, such as air pollution in large cities and water scarcity has increased with an adverse impact on sustainability, welfare and overall quality of life of citizens. In this paper, first, traditional "stagist" model and professional model of policy-making for a holistic analysis of the socio-economic and political causes of environmental problems, the role of governmental organizations including those responsible for monitoring the implementation of environmental protection laws, and the role of citizens in solving environmental issues will be discussed. The authors then focus on the policies of other countries aimed at sustainable development, welfare improvement and confronting environmental challenges. In the end, they offer policy recommendations to Iran's policymakers who are advised to pay special attention to the relationship between environmental justice and sustainable development in their search for political and legal solutions for Iran's immediate environmental problems.


  1. آمار نگران‌کنندۀ مرگ ایرانی‌ها بر اثر آلودگی هوا/ ۱۳هزار نفر در کل ایران و ۴۸ هزار نفر در تهران، (1396، 2 دی)خبر آنلاین. در


  1. تقی‌زاده انصاری، مصطفی (1374). حقوق محیط زیست در ایران، تهران: سمت.
  2. تداوم اجرای طرح هر مدرسه یک نهالستان در مدارس منتخب چهارمحال و بختیاری، (1396، 1 بهمن) سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست. https://www.doe.ir/
  3. حراست از حیات وحش، اولویت ششم سازمان محیط زیست است، (1393، 5 فروردین) تابناک.


  1. حراست از هر ۱۲ هزار هکتار توسط یک محیط‌بان در کشور، (1396، 1 بهمن) سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست.


  1. رئیس سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست: ۵ کلانشهر علاوه‌بر تهران مشکل آلودگی هوا دارند، (1396، 1 بهمن) سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست.

 https://www.doe.ir/Portal/home/?news/196210/550181/796325/ .

  1. رئیس مجلس در دیدار با مجمع نمایندگان استان اصفهان سند جامع آب تدوین شود، (1396، 5 دی) خبرگزاری برنا.


8.     شرکت کنترل هوای تهران. (1396، 20 دی) کفۀ روزهای آلودۀ امسال، سنگین‌تر از سال گذشته است،air.tehran.ir . http://air.tehran.ir/ArticleId/542

  1. شرکت کنترل هوای تهران. (1396، اردیبهشت) گزارش کیفیت هوای تهران 1395. تهران: شرکت کنترل هوای تهران.

10. «کوچ اجباری در سرنوشت میلیون‌ها ایرانی،» (1394، 7 اردیبهشت) شهروند. http://shahrvand-newspaper.ir/

11. کلانتری: در حال ویران کردن کشور هستیم، (1396، 1 بهمن) سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست.


12. کلانتری: سیاستگذاری‌های کشور مطابق با وضعیت بحرانی آب نیست، ( 20 آبان 1396) خبرگزاری مهر. https://www.mehrnews.com/news/4140939/

13. قانون برنامۀ پنجسالۀ ششم توسعۀ جمهوری اسلامی ایران. (1395، 12 مرداد) پایگاه اطلاع‌رسانی دولت. http://dolat.ir/detail/281959/.

14. مرکز آمار ایران، درگاه ملی آمار. (1396، بهمن) برآورد جمعیت کل کشوربه تفکیک مناطق شهری و روستایی، و جنس، سال­های 1395-1375. https://www.amar.org.ir


ب) خارجی

  1. Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. (2003, Summer). “The Environmental Movement in Iran: Perspectives from below and Above,” Middle East Journal 57, 3: 432-448.
  2. Al-Gilan, Ahmad and Seamus Filor. (1997). "Policy and Practice Environmental Policies in Saudi Arabia," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 40, 6: 775-788.
  3. Ariely, Gal. (2013). "Public Administration and Citizen Satisfaction with Democracy: Cross-National Evidence," International Review of Administrative Sciences79, 4: 747- 766.
  4. Beaumont, Peter. (1974, October). "Water Resource Development in Iran,"Geographical Journal 140, 3: 418-431.
  5. Bullock, Justin B. and Ann O’M. Bowman. (2017, September). "FEW: Exploring Citizens’ Support for Policy Tools at the Food, Energy, Water Nexus," Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy DOI: 10.1002/ep.12727/.
  6. Byrd, Rosaly and Lauren DeMates. (2017). Sustainability Made Simple: Small Changes for Big Impact, New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  7. Cabinet Office. (1999). Professional Policymaking for the 21st Century, London: The Cabinet Office.
  8. Carson, Richard. (2010, Winter). "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Seeking Empirical Regularity and Theoretical Structure," Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 4, 1: 3-23.
  9. Clement, Matthew T. et al. (2017). "Scaling down the “Netherlands Fallacy”: A Local-level Quantitative Study of the Effect of Affluence on the Carbon Footprint across the United States," Environmental Science and Policy78: 1–8.

10. Denny, Elaine et al. (2008, April). Sustainable Water Strategies for Jordan, Ann Arbor, MI: Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan. Available at: http://www.umich.edu/~ipolicy/ Policy%20 Papers/water.pdf/.

11. Department of Public Works. (2018).Environmental Defenders Program, Available at: http://dpw.lacounty.gov/epd/environmental-defenders/.

12. Detges, Adrien. (2017). "Droughts, state-citizen relations and support for political violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: A micro-level analysis," Political Geography 61: 88-98.

13. Ebtekar, Massoumeh. (2009). "Iran’s Environmental Policy in the Reform Period (1997-2006)," International Journal of Environmental Studies 66, 3: 289-296.

14. Elkington, J. et al. (2007). Sustainability, 20 Years of Global Leadership [online]. London: SustainAbility. Available from http://www.sustainability.com/.

15. Fadaee, Simin. (2011). "Environmental Movements in Iran: Application of the New Social Movement Theory in the Non-European Context," Social Change41, 1: 79-96.

16. Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan. (2012). "Linking Transparency, Knowledge and Citizen Trust in Government: An Experiment," International Review of Administrative Sciences78, 1: 50-73.

17. Harbaugh, William T. et al. (2002, August). "Reexamining the Empirical Evidence for an Environmental Kuznets Curve," The Review of Economics and Statistics 84, 3: pp. 541-551.

18. Hobson, Kersty. (2013)."On the Making of the Environmental Citizen," Environmental Politics 22, 1, 56-72.

19. Hoffman, Joan. (2017). "Environmental Justice along Product Life Cycles: Importance, Renewable Energy Examples and Policy Complexities," Local Environment, 22, 10: 1174-1196.

20. Hosseini, Vahid and Hossein Shahbazi. (2016). "Urban Air Pollution in Iran," Iranian Studies 49, 6: 1029-1046.

21. Hsu, A. et al. (2016). The 2016 Environmental Performance Index. New Haven, CT: Yale University. Available from: http://epi.yale.edu/sites/default/files/2016EPI_Full_Report_ opt.pdf/.

22. Kelly, Nathan J. (2005, October), "Political Choice, Public Policy, and Distributional Outcomes," American Journal of Political Science 49, 4: 865–880.

23. Kuznets, Simon. (1955, January). "Economic Growth and Income Inequality," American Economic Review 45: 1-28.

24. Ministry of Water and Irrigation, Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. (2016) National Water Strategy, 2016- 2025. Amman: Jordan. Available at: http://www.mwi.gov.jo/.

25. Mirchi, Ali and Kaveh Madani. (2017 , May 16). "Will Iran's next president care enough to put the environment first?" The Guardian. Available at:https://www.theguardian.com/world/iran-blog/2017/may/16/will-irans-next-president-care-enough-put-environment-first/.

26. Nilsson, Måns and Åsa Persson. (2017). "Policy Note: Lessons from Environmental Policy Integration for the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda," Environmental Science and Policy78: 36–39.

27. Parsons, Wayne. (2001, Autumn). "Modernizing Policy-making for the Twenty First Century: The Professional Model,"Public Policy and Administration16, 3: 93-110.

28. Pouran, Hamid M. (2016, April– May). "Air Pollution and Public Health in Iran," The Middle East in London 12, 3: 13-14.

29. Smith, Zachary A. (2017). The Environmental Policy Paradox, New York: Routledge.

30. Sprinz, Detlef F. (2012). "Long-Term Environmental Policy: Challenges for Research," The Journal of Environment Development21, 1: 67-70.

31. Stern, David I. (2004). "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development32, 8: 1419-1439.

32. Stone, Deborah. (2011). Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making, New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

  1. 33.  United Nations Environment Program. (2017a). Frontiers 2017 Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern. UNEP, Nairobi. Available at: https://www.unenvironment.org/resources/frontiers-2017-emerging-issues-environmental-concern/.

34. United Nations Environment Program. (2017b). 2016 Annual Report: Empowering People to Protect Planet, http://web.unep.org/annualreport/2016/index.php?page=0&lang=en/.

35. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Interim Guidance on Considering Environmental Justice during the Development of an Action. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/ policy/considering-ej-in-rulemaking-guide-07-2010.pdf/.

36. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (2011, September). Plan EJ 2014. Washington, D.C.: Office of Environmental Justice.

37. U.S. National Park Service. (2018). "Youth Programs," nps.gov, Available at: https://www.nps.gov/subjects/youth programs/index.htm/.

38. Vanderwarker, Amy. (2012). "Water and Environmental Justice," in Christian-Smith, Juliet, et al., eds. A Twenty-First Century U.S. Water Policy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 52-89.

39. de Vries, Hanna et al. (2017). "A Stakeholder Perspective on Public Sector Innovation: Why Position Matters," International Review of Administrative Sciences 0: 1-19.

40. de Vries, Michiel S. (2000). "The Bureaucratization of Participation," International Review of Administrative Sciences 66, 2:325- 348.

41. Ward, Hugh. (2008, June). “Liberal Democracy and Sustainability,” Environmental Politics 17, 3: 386-409.

42. Weinbaum, M. G. (1977, Autumn), “Agricultural Policy and Development Politics in Iran,” Middle East Journal31, 4: 434-450.

43. World Health Organization. (2017). World Health Statistics 2017: Monitoring Health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: http://apps.who.int/ iris/bitstream/10665/ 255336/1/9789241565486-eng.pdf/.

44. Yaghi, Abdulfattah and Madalla Alibeli. (2017). "Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of Citizens’ Willingness to Pay: Ethical and Policy Implications for the Environment in the United Arab Emirates," Public Integrity 19, 1: 41-57.