Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Regional Studies, Tehran University

2 Ph.D. Candidate of Regional Studies, Tehran University


Regionalism is a process that began from Western Europe and with the passage of time, it witnessed some developments. Therefore, the starting point of regionalism studies, reviews and theorization have been mainly in the Western European region. This fact has led to a situation where actions and efforts of theoretical and practical regionalism in Europe is a criterion and standard for recognition and evaluation of regionalism in other regions of the world. Accordingly, since the establishment of integration agreements between the North American countries, namely, Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA) in 1989, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 among US, Mexico and Canada and then security and prosperity partnership of North America (SPP) in 2005 among US, Canada and Mexico from North American region, being termed “a region where the states have regional integration links”. However, the above mentioned regionalism agreements differ from the regionalism present in other parts of the world both in practice and regarding the concepts being used. It seems that the above-mentioned agreements in North America have created regionalization much different from regionalism. So the question of the present paper can be formulated as follows: Why do North American states welcome regionalization but show resistance to regionalism?


. ایکنبری، جی جان (1382). تنها ابرقدرت هژ مونی آمریکا در قرن 21، ترجمۀ عظیم فضلی‌پور، تهران: ابرار معاصر.
2. عسکر‌خانی، ابو‌محمد (1383). رژیم‌های بین‌المللی، تهران: ابرار معاصر.
3. مشیرزاده، حمیرا (1385). تحول در نظریه‌های روابط بین‌الملل، تهران: سمت.
4. هانگی، هینر، رولوف، رالف؛ و رولاند، یورگن (1392). میان منطقه‌گرایی و روابط بین‌الملل، ترجمۀ الهه کولایی و محمدکاظم شجاعی، تهران: مرکز آموزش و پژوهش‌های بین‌الملل.
5. Ayres, Jeffrey & Macdonald Laura (2007). “Deep Integration and Shallow Governance: The Limits to Civil society Engagement Across North America”, Policy and Society, 25 (6): 23 – 42.
6. Balassa, Bela (1961). The Theory of Economic Integration (Homewood, IL: Richard  D. Irwin, Inc.
7. Bothwell, Robert (2007). Alliance and Illusion: Canada and the World, 1945 – 1984, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
8. Brean Joseph & Alberts, Sheldon (2003). “US  Loses Faith in Canada”, National post, March 26, A1 & A13.
9. Cameron, Maxwell A. & Tomlin, Brian W. (2000). The  making of NAFTA: How the Deal Was Done,  Ithaca, NY : cornell University Press.
10. Canadian Council of Chief  Executives (2003). Security and Prosperity: Toward a New Canada– United States Partnership in North America, available at: www.ceocouncil. ca/en/publication/publications. php.
11. Clarkson, Stephen (2007). “Does North American Exist? Transborder Governance after NAFTA and the Security and Prosperity Partnership“, Norteame’rica, RevistaAcade’mica, 2(2), pp: 85-104.
12. Clayton, Mark & Chaddock, Gail Russel (2001). “Terrorists Aided by Leaky US-Canada Line”, Christian Science Manitor Online, Sep.19
13. Cooper (1999). “NAFTA and the Politic of Regional Trade”, in Brian Hocking and Steven McGuire (eds). Trade Politics: Actors, Issues and Processes, New York: Routledge, pp: 229-244.
14. Corsi, Jerome (2007).  The late Great USA: The Coming Merger with Mexico and Canada, New york: WND Books.
15. Courchene, Thomas (2003). “FTA at 15, NAFTA at 10 A Canadian Perspective on North American Integration”, North American Journal of Economics and Finance, 14, pp: 263-285.
16. D’Aquino, Thomas (2008). Reaching for the Top: Strategic Imperatives for Canada in a Transforming Global Economy, The Simon Reism an Honory Lecture, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, march  27, pp: 1-21.
17. Dobson, Wendy (2002).  Shaping the Future of the North American Economic space: A Framework for Action, in The Border papers, Toronto: C. D. HoweInstitute.
18. Duina, Franceso (2006). The Social Construction of Free Trade: The European Union. NAFTA and Mercosur (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University press.
19. Dura’n, Clemente R. (2003). “NAFTA: Lessons from an Uneven Integration” International Journal of Political Economy, 3 )3(, pp: 50-71.
20. Fatemi, Khosrow (1990). The Maquiladora Industry : Economic Solution or problem ? New York: praeger publishers.
21. Gabriel, Christina and Macdonald  (2004).‘Of Borders and Business: Canada Corporat Proposals for North American “Deep Integration”’, Studies in Political Economy, 74, pp: 82-85.
22. Gotlieb, Allan(2004). Romanticism and Realism in Canada’s Foreign Policy, Benefactors Lecture, Toronto: C. D. Howe Institute, pp: 1-45.
23. Granatstein J. L. and Bothwell, Robert(1991). Pirouette : Pierre Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Policy,Toronto : University of Toronto press.
24. Granatstein, j. L(1996). Yankee go home? Canadas and Anti – Americanism, Toronto: HarPer Collins.
25. Grubel, Herbert G.(1999). “The Case for the amero : The Economics and Politics of a North American monetary union, Critical Issues Bulletin, The Fraser Institute, available at: www.fraserinstitute. org /COMMERCE, WEB/Product _ files/amero. pdf>.
26. H. Con. Res. 487, 109th Congress, 2nd Session, 28 September 2006: reintroduced in the 110th Congress  as H. Con. Res. 40, 22 January 2007. For cosponsor, available at: www. govtrack. us/congress/bill. xpd? bill – hc l10‌–‌140.
27. Hart, Michael and Dymond William (2001). “Common Borders, Shared Destinies: Canada, the United states and Deepening Integration“, Policy Debates. Center for Trade Policy and law. Carleton University, November 20, available at: pdf>.
28. Hurrell, Andrew (2006). “Hegemony in a Region that Dares not Speak its Name”, International Journal, 61(3), pp: 545-566.
29. Lee sang M., & Hancock Marijane E. (2005). “Disruption in supply Chain Due to September 11. 2001”, Decision line,  march, pp: 8‌–‌11.
30. Mace, Gordon (2007). “Introduction”, in Gordon Mace (ed.), Regionalism and the State : NAFTA and Foreign Policy Convergence Burlington. VT :Ashgate Publications.
31. McDougall, John N. (2004). “The Long – Run Determinants of Deep/ political Canada– Us Integration”, in Thomas J. Courchene, Donald J. Savoie and Daniel Schwanen (eds), The Arts of the State II: Thinking North America,  Montral: Institute for Research on Public Policy.
32. NAFTA Revisted :Achievements and Challenges (Washington, Dc : Institute for Internationol Economics 2005), pp: 468 – 9.
33. National Commission on Terrorist Attacks on the UnitedStates (2004). 7th Public hearing, January 26 available at: www. 9–11 commission. gov/hearings/hearing7/ witness– bonner.htm>.
34. Pastor, Robert A. (2004). “North Americas  Second  Decade”, Foreign Affairs, 83(1), pp: 124-135.
35. Reagan Ronald’s Announcement for Presidential Candidacy (1979). New York November 13, The Public Papers of President Ronald W.Reagan, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library available at:
36. Story, Jonathan (2006).‘The Origins, Launching and Consequences of “1992” and the Euro : The Politics of Economic and Monetary Integration in Europe’, in Bertrand Fort and Douglas Webber (eds). Regional Integration in East Asia and Europe: Convergence or Divergence? London: Routledge, pp: 87 – 108.
37. Stubbs, Richard(2002). “ASEAN plus Three: Emerging East Asian Regionalism?” Asian Survey, 42( 3), pp: 440–455.
38. Studer, Isabel (2007). “Obestacles to Integration: NAFTA’s Institutional Weakness,” in Wise, Carol and. Studer,Isabel (eds), Requiem or Revival? (Brookings Institution press, pp: 53-75.
The NAFTA Secretariat Website is www. nafta – sec – alena. org /DefaultSite/index.html>.
39. Thompson, Ginger (2000). “Mexican Leader visits US with a Vision to Sell”, New York Times Online, August 24.
40. Tomlin, Brian W.(2001). “Leaving the past Behind: the Free Trade Initiative Assessed”, in Nelson Michaud and Kim Richard Nossal (eds), DiPlomatic Departures: The Conservative Era in Canadian Foreign Policy‌, 1984‌–‌1993, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, pp: 45–58.
41. Weintraub, Sidney (1994). NAFTA: What Comes Next? Westport,CT:Praeger. 
42. Wonnacott J. Ronald (1996). “Trade and Investment in a Hub– and–spoke system Versus a Free Trade Area”, The World Economy, 19(3), pp: 237 – 252.
44. www.nascocorridor. com.
Volume 48, Issue 4
January 2019
Pages 889-906
  • Receive Date: 17 September 2017
  • Revise Date: 11 June 2018
  • Accept Date: 17 February 2018
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2018