Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associated Professor, Regional Studies Department, University of Tehran

2 Ph.D Student, the Studies of the Caucasus and Central Asia, University of Tehran


Russian identity discourses, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, have faced a region consisting of states and territorial boundaries around the border of Russia that were previously defined in the form of a “we”, and now those states must be redefined as “they” and their place would have also been determined in the Russian continuum of “other-self”. These discourses in the self-redefinition have emphasized on a range of different perceptions, from the continuation of “unity in the form of we” in the post-Soviet era to “Otherness” and “alienation” in the Eurasian region. Depending on the identical consideration or different consideration of identity, Eurasian regionalism have different representations in Russian macro-discourses of identity (westernism, statism and  Eurasianism) and thus the preferences of Russia in this process is accompanied with neglectful and emphatic turnings. This Research is trying to find the reasons for volatilities of Russian participation in the Eurasian regionalism, by applying the theory of “critical constructivist regionalism”, while emphasizing on the assumption that “identity debates in Russian foreign policy discourses have been the reason for neglectful and emphatic turnings in the preference of participation in the Eurasian regionalism.”


الف) فارسی
1. کولایی، الهه (1385)، سیاست و حکومت در فدراسیون روسیه، چ دوم، تهران: دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین‌المللی.
2. -------- (1391)، سیاست و حکومت در اوراسیای مرکزی، تهران: سمت.
3. مشیرزاده، حمیرا (1383). «گفتگوی تمدن‌ها از منظر سازه‌انگاری»، مجلۀ دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، ش 63، ص 201-169.
4. ویلیامز، سی میشل (1389)، جنگ نرم فرهنگی: درآمدی بر نسبت امنیت و فرهنگ، ترجمۀ مهدی ذوالفقاری، تهران: دانشگاه امام صادق (ع).
ب) انگلیسی
Adler, Emanuel(1997). “Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics”, European Journal of International Relations, Vol.3, No.3, pp: 319-363.
Alexandrov, Maxym(2003). “The Concept of State Identity in International Relations: A Theoretical Analysis”, Journal of International Development and Cooperation, Vol.10, No.1, pp: 33-46.
Billington, James .H (2004). Russia in Search of itself, Woodraw Wilson Center Press, John Hopkins University Press.
Boughton, James M (2012). “Tearing Down Walls, The international Monetary Fund 1990-1999”, International Monetary Fund, Available at: pubs/ft/history/2012/, (Accessed on:26 Jan 2016).
Bordachev, Timofei V, Skriba, Andrei S (2016). “Russia’s Eurasian Integration Policies”, Available at:, (Accessed on:17 Jan 2016).
Bozdağlıoğlu, Yücel (2007). “Constructivism and Identity Formation: An Interactive Approach”, Uluslararasi Hukuk ve Politika, Vol.3, No.11, pp: 121-144.
Buckley, Mary (2003). “Russian Foreign Policy and Its Critics”, in: Rick Fawn, Realignments in Russian Foreign Policy, London: Frank Cass, pp: 27-43.

Campbell, David (1998). Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Darczewska, Jolanta (2014). The Anatomy of Russian Information Warfare: The Crimean Operation , A Case Study, Warsaw: Centre for Eastern Studies, N. 42, May.
Finnemore, Martha (1996). National Interests in International Society, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Hekman, Susan (2000). “Beyond Identity Feminism, Identity and Identity Politics”, Feminist Theory, Vol.1, No.3, pp: 289-308.
Hiekonen, Nina (2007). The Issue of Russian Identity, Department of Political Sciences and International Relations, Finland: University of Tampere.
Hopf, Ted (1998). “The Promise of Constructivism in International Relations Theory”, International Security, Vol.23, No.1, pp: 171-200.
Hopf ,Ted (2005). “Identity, Legitimacy and the Use of Military Force:Russia’s Great Power Identities and Military Intervention in Abkhazia”, Review of International Studies, Vol.31, Issue S1 (Force and Legitimacy in World Politics), Dec, pp: 225-243.
Hopf, Ted (2007). “Russia’s Identity Relations with Europe, the EU, and the United States:1991-2007”, August, Available at:, (Accessed on:6 May 2016).
Hund, Markus (2001) “The Development of ASEAN Norms between 1997 and 2000: A Paradigm Shift?”, Zops Occasional Papers Trier, April, pp: 1-71.
Kazharski, Aliaksei (2013). “Eurasian Regionalism as an Identitary Enterprise: Representations of European Other in Russian Discourse on Eurasian Integration”, Institute of European Studies and International Relations,CEURUS EU-Russia Papers, No.12, December.
Lepsius, Rainer (1999) “The European Union Economic – Political Integration and Cultural Polarity” in: Reinhold Viehoff and Rein T. Segers (eds) Culture, Identity, Europe. Frankfort : Suhrkamp, pp: 201-222.
Light, Margot(2004). “In Search of an Identitiy: Russian Foreign Policy and the End of Ideology” , in: Rick, Fawn (ed), Ideology and National Identity in Post-Communist Foreign Policies, London: Frank Cass Publishers Crown House, pp: 41-57.
Lo, Bobo (2002). Russian Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era: Reality,Illusion and Mythmaking, New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
Lo, Bobo (2003). Vladimir Putin and the evolution of Russian foreign policy, London and Malden: MA.
March, Luke (2011). “Is Nationalism Rising in Russian Foreign Policy? The Case of Georgia”, DEMOKRATIZATSIYA, Available at: pp: 187-207. docs/demokratizatsiya%20archive/GWASHU_DEMO_19_3/J235073GW31587H1/J235073GW31587H1.pdf (Accessed on:28 May 2016).
Moldashev, Kairat & Aslam, Mohamed (2015). “Russia in the Pursuit of Eurasian Integration: Developmental Regionalism or Identity Project?”, paper is prepared for ISA Global South Caucus Conference 2015 " Voices from Outside: Re-shaping International Relations Theory and Practice in an Era of Global Transformation; January 8th 10th, Singapore Management University, Singapore.
Moulioukova, Dina (2011). “Dialectic Relation between Foreign Policy and Russian National Identity”, European Union Miami Analysis, Vol.11, No.9, pp: 1-19.
Putin, Vladimir (03/10/2011). “A new integration project for Eurasia:The future in the making”, Available at:  new -integration-project-eurasia-future-making-izvestia-3-, (Accessed on:16 Oct 2016).
Ruggie , John G.(1998) “What Makes the World Hang Together? Neo-utilitarianism and the Social Constructivist Challenge”, International Organization, Vol.52, No.4.pp:91-119.
Selezneva, Ludmilla (2003). “Post-Soviet Russian Foreign Policy: Between Doctrine and Pragmatism”, in: Rick Fawn, Realignments in Russian Foreign Policy, London: Frank Cass, pp: 10-26.
Secrieru, Stanislav (2014). Russian Conservative Reawakening, The Polish Institute of International Affairs, Strategic File, No. 18 (54), August.
Stent, A (2008). “Restoration and Revolution in Putin’s Foreign Policy”, Europe-Asia Studies, Vol.60, No.6, pp: 1089-1106.
Shendrikova, Diana (2015). “Going regional the Russian way: The Eurasian Economic Union between instrumentalism and global social appropriateness”, GR:EEN Working Paper, Available at: http://www, (Accessed on: 14 Dec 2015).
Trenin, Dimitry (2006).”Russia Leaves the West”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 85, Iss. 4, p.74-92.
Tsygankov, A.P (2003). “Mastering space in Eurasia: Russia’s geopolitical thinking after the Soviet break-up”, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, N.36, pp: 101-127.
 Tsygankov, Andrei (2012). "Change and Continunity in Russia’s Foreign Policy", Russian analytical digest, N.109, 8 March, pp: 9-11.
Vinokurov, Evgeny (2007). “Russian Approaches to Integration in the Post-Soviet Space in the 2000s” , in: K. Malfiet et al (eds), The CIS, the EU and Russia, Palgrave Macmillan.
Wendt, Alexander (2001) “Driving with the Rearview Mirror: On the Rational Science of Institutional Design”, International Organization, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp: 1019-1049.
wisniewska, Iwona (2013). "Eurasian Integration:Russia’s Attempt at the Economic Unification of the Post-Soviet Area", Centre for Eastern Studies, OSW Studies, N. 44, July.
Yi, Chunyao (2007). "Emergence of Regionalism: About State Preference Formation", School of Politics and International Studies, University of Leeds, Polis Working Paper, No. 23, pp: 1-36.
Zevelev, Igor (2009). Russia’ Future: Nation or Civilization? Collapse of the Soviet Union and the "Russian Question", Russia in Global Affairs, Vol.7, No.4, Oct-Dec, pp: 73-87.
Zhengyi, Wang (2004) “Contending East Asian Regional Identity: Market- Led, Institutions or Social Reconstruction” The Pacific Review, Vol.17, No.4, pp: 523-545.
Volume 48, Issue 4
January 2019
Pages 979-1000
  • Receive Date: 05 December 2016
  • Revise Date: 26 November 2016
  • Accept Date: 07 February 2017
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2018