Nation branding and national image making: new interdisciplinary perspective for political Science and international relation

Document Type : Research Paper



Nation branding in conception meaning way is rebuild, construction and Change of image of the country in outside of the land which perception by foreign people, stakeholder and international public opinion. Originally Nation branding is align of the nation with reality. This is so important matter for countries which passed many fundamental changes in their political, social and economic systems. More often image of these countries always is different from their reality. This paper tries to examine what is the nation branding and national image making and its goals and its focus. Then paper emphasis that nation branding as interdisciplinary theory can provide new perspective and new studies for political science and international relation studies in Iran and later on scholars and students in Iran can extensive use from this theory.


  1. الف) فارسی

    1. بیدالله‌خانی، آرش؛ و مجید حسینی (1394). «برندینگ و بازاریابی سیاسی، الگویی جدید برای توسعۀ ارتباطات سیاسی مشارکتی»، فصلنامۀ سیاست، مجلة دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، دورۀ 45، ش 4، زمستان، ص 936-915.  
    2. دهدشتی، زهره؛ جعفرزاده، مهدی؛ و بخشی‌زاده؛ علیرضا (1391). «بررسی دیدگاه هویت اجتماعی برند و تأثیر آن در توسعۀ وفاداری به برند (مورد مطالعه: شرکت تولیدکنندۀ محصولات لبنی کاله)»، فصلنامۀ تحقیقات بازاریابی نوین، سال دوم، ش دوم، شمارۀ پیاپی 5، تابستان، ص 106- 87.
    3. کاپفر، ژان نوئل (1385). مدیریت راهبردی نام تجاری، ترجمۀ سینا قربانلو، تهران: مبلغان.


    ب) خارجی


    1. Anholt, S (2007). Competitive identity: the new brand management for nations, cities and regions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
    2. Anholt, S.(2003). Branding Places and Nations in Clifton, R. & Simmons, J., Brands and Branding, London, The Economist,
    3. Anholt. Simon (2010). Places: Identity, Image and Reputation. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
    4. Aronczyk, M (2013). Branding the nation: the global business of national identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press
    5. Ashmore, Richard D; Deaux, Kay; & McLaughlin-Volpe, Tracy (2004). “An organizingframework for collective identity: articulation and significance of multidimensionality”, In: Psychological Bulletin. 130 (1), pp: 80–114.
    6. Blackett, Tom (2003). What is a brand? In R. Clifton & J. Simmons (Eds.), Brands and Branding(13-25).  London: The Economist.
    7. Buhmann, Alexander (2016)  Measuring Country Image, Theory, Method, and Effects, Fribourg: Springer.
    8. Dinnie, K. (2008). Nation Branding: Concepts, Issues, Practice. Oxford, UK: Butterworth Heinemann.
    9. Eugene, D. Jaffe; & Israel D. Nebenzahl (2001). National Image and Competitive Advantage. Copenhaguen Business School Press.
    10. Fan, Y. (2008). “Soft power: The power of attraction or confusion”, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4 (2), pp: 147–158.
    11. Fan, Y. (2006). “Banding the nation: What is being branded?”, Journal of Vacation Marketing, 12 (1), pp: 5–14.
    12. Fan, Y. (2010). “Branding the Nation: Towards a Better Understanding”, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 6(2), pp: 97-103


    1. Fullerton, J.; & Kendrick, A. (2015). “A model of country concept: How attitudes toward nations are formed”, Paper presented at annual AEJMC, San Francisco, CA. Center on public diplomacy.
    2. Gilmore, F. (2002).  “A country, can it be repositioned? Spain the success story of country branding”, Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4–5), pp: 281–293
    3. Gudjonsson, H. (2005). Nation branding. Place Branding, 1(3), pp:283-98
    4. Harter,Susan (2012). The Construction of the Self, Developmental and Socio-cultural Foundations, guilford Press.
    5. Iwabuchi, Koichi (2015). “Pop-culture diplomacy in Japan: soft power, nation branding and the question of ‘international cultural exchange”, International Journal of Cultural, 21(4), pp: 419-432.
    6. Kaneva, N. (2012). Who can play this game? Therise of nation branding in Bulgaria, 2001–2005. In: N. Kaneva, ed. Branding post-communist nations: marketizing national identities in the ‘new’ Europe. London: Routledge, pp: 99–123.
    7. Keller, K. L. (2003). Strategic brand management: Building, measuring, and managing brand equity, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Education Inc.
    8. Kotler, P.; & Gertner, D. (2002). “Country as brand, product, and beyond: A place marketing and brand management perspective”, Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4/5), pp: 249–261.
    9. Lambin, Jean-Jacques (2007). Market - driven management: Strategic and operational marketing.  Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    10. Lee, K.M. (2009). “Nation branding and sustainable competitiveness of nations”, PhD thesis, University of Twente, accessed 1 April 2009.
    11. Olins, W. (2002). “Branding the nation—the historical context”, The Journal of Brand Management, 9(4),pp: 241 –248
    12. Roth, K.P.; & Diamantopoulos, A. (2009). “Advancing the country image construct”, Journal of Business Research, 62, pp: 726–740.
    13. Rusciano, Frank Louis (2003). “The construction of national identity” – A 23-nation study.“ In: Political Research Quarterly, 56 (3), pp: 361–366.
    14. Sengupta, Anita (2016). Symbols and the Image of the State in Eurasia, Singapore: Springer.
    15. Szondi, G. (2008). “Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding: Conceptual Similarities and Differences”, in Clingendael Discussion Paper in Diplomacy, 112.
    16. Valaskivi, Katja (2013). “A brand new future? Cool Japan and the social imaginary of the branded nation”, Japan Forum 2013, pp: 1–19.
    17. Van ham, Peter (2001). The Rise of the Brand State:  the Postmodern Politics of Image and Reputation. Foreign Affairs, 80(5).
    18. Wang, J. (2005). “Localising Public Diplomacy: The Role of Sub-National Actors in Nation Branding”, Place Branding, 2(1), pp: 32-42.
    19. Whetten, D.; & Mackey, A. (2002). “A social actor conception of organizational  identity and its implications for the study of organisational reputation”, Business & Society, 41(4), pp: 393–414.