Document Type : Research Paper



Development is one of the concepts in the social science and political science. It has been changed deeply in theoretical dimensions and has been discussed much based on different experiences of many developing countries around the world. Finally in the context of political economy and economic development this concept and related theories new patterns have been emerged. Now beyond these fields, political development and human development have opened new debates about these theories: developmental state theory. This model is an effort to explain the causes and mechanism of development in Singapore, based on this theory. Developmental state theory focus on the role of state based on the process of development of East and South East Asian countries. In this regards the authors survey policies and programs of Singapore’s state. In this paper after review on different main theorist of development, they focus on some ideas of these people. With stress on Leftwich’s outlooks, the authors see the state as the main source and mean of development. They examine the experiences of Singapore’s state to fulfill economic development programs to show the aspects of this model.


  1. الف) فارسی

    1. اوانز، پیتر (1382). توسعه یا چپاول، نقش دولت در تحول صنعتی، ترجمة عباس زندباف و عباس مخبر، چ دوم، تهران: طرح نو.
    2. دلفروز، محمدتقی (1393). دولت و توسعة اقتصادی: اقتصاد سیاسی توسعه در ایران و دولت‌های توسعه‌گرا، تهران: آگاه.
    3. عجم‌اوغلو، دارون؛ و رابینسون، جیمز (1394). ریشه‌های اقتصادی دیکتاتوری و دموکراسی، ترجمة جعفر خیرخواهان، علی سرزعیم، تهران: کویر.
    4. کاستلز، مانوئل (1389). عصر اطلاعات: اقتصاد، جامعه و فرهنگ (پایان هزاره)، ترجمة احد علیقلیان، افشین خاکباز و حسن چاوشیان، تهران: طرح نو.
    5. لفت‌ویچ، آدریان (1384). سیاست و توسعه در جهان سوم، معاونت پژوهشی، ترجمة علیرضا خسروی، مهدی میرمحمدی، مؤسسة فرهنگی مطالعات و تحقیقات بین‌المللی ابرار معاصر تهران.
    6. ----------- (1385). دولت‌های توسعه‌گرا پیرامون اهمیت سیاست در توسعه، ترجمة جواد افشار کهن، مشهد: مرندیز، نی‌نگار.
    7. موثقی، سید احمد (1383). «توسعه؛ سیر تحول مفهومی و نظری»، مجلة دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، ش 63. بهار.
    8. ----------- (1385). نوسازی و اصلاحات در ایران، تهران: قومس.


    ب) خارجی



    1. Adelman, Irma (1999). The Role of Government in Economic Development, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics, Working Paper No. 890, at:
    2. Borenszteina, E. J. De Gregoriob, J-W. Lee (1998). “How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?”, Journal of International Economics 45..
    3. Cahyadi, Gundy; Kursten, Barbara; Weiss, Marc; & Yang, Guang (2004). Singapore’s Economic Transformation, Global Urban Development Prague, Czech Republic, at:
    4. Case, William (2002). Politics in South-East Asia: Democracy or Less, Richmond: Cruzon Press.
    5. Eugene, Liow Dili (2009). Reconstructing the Working Class: Neoliberalism and Retail Workers in Singapore, National University of Singapore.
    6. Evans, P.B (1989). Predatory, Developmental and other apparatutes: a comparative political economy perspective on the third world state, sosiological forum 4.
    7. Fritz, Verena; & Rocha Menocal, Alina (2007). “Developmental State in the New Milenniume: Concepts and Challenges for a New Aid Agenda”, Development Policy Review, 25(5).
    8. Full Report (2016). Ministry of Trade and Industry Republic of Singapore, at:
    9. Furlund .Eivind B (2008). Singapore, from third to first world country. The effect development in Little India and Chinatown. Norwegian University of Technology and Science. Department of Geography. Trondheim.
    10. Good, Kenneth (1993). “at the ends of the ladder: radical inequalities in Botsowana”, Journal of Modern African Studies, 31(2).
    11. Haque, M. Shamsul (2009). “Governance and Bureaucracy in Singapore: Contemporary Reforms and Implications”, International Political Science Review, Vol 25, No. 2.
    12. Hill, Hal (2014). Is There a Southeast Asian Development Model?, Department of International Economic Policy, Institute for Economic Research, University of Freiburg.,India and Chinatown. Norwegian University of Technology and Science. Department of Geography, Trondheim
    13. Johnson, Chalmers (1982). MITI and the Japanese Miracle: the Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925-1975.Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.
    14. Khan, Habibullah (2001) Social Policy in Singapore: A Confucian Model? . The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/the World Bank.
    15. Kim Cheng Low, Patrick (2006). "Father Leadership: the Singapore case study", Management Decision, Vol. 44.
    16. Kim, Wee Wong (2016). population trends 2016, Singapore department of statistics, at:
    17. Kohli, Atul (2005). State-Directed Development: Political Power and Industrialization in the global periphery, Cambridge: Cambridge University press.
    18. Lai Si, Taui Auch (2004). “Bureaucratic Rationality and Nodal Agency in a Developmental State: the case of state [led Biotechnology in Singapore”, International Sociology, December, vol 19, No 4.
    19. Lam, Newman M. K. (2000). Government Intervention in the Economy: A Comparative Analysis of Singapore and Hong Kong, public administration and development.
    20. Leftwich, Adrian (2006). Changing Configuration of the Developmental State, in Ahmed Shafigul Hague and Habib Zafarullah(eds) International Development Governance, CRC Press.
    21. Menon, Sudha Vena (2007). Governing, Leadership and economic growth in Singapore. ICFAI Business School, Ahmedabad.
    22. Molusti, P. & Holm, J.D (1990). Developing democracy when civil society is weak: the case of Botsowana. African Affairs 89.
    23. Rudan, Gary (1998). Singapore in 1997: Living with the Neighbours, Asian Survey, 38.
    24. Tan, Tony; & Shanmugaratnam, Tharman (2015). Singapore’s Productivity Challenge: A historical perspective, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, at:
    25. Siddiqui, Kalim (2010). “The Political Economy of Development in Singapore, Macrothink Institute”, Reaserch in Applied Economics, vol 2, No 2.
    26. Singapore's MPA on a drive for sustainable development (2015). Publication: Riviera At:
    27. Streton, H. (1976) Capitalism, Socialism, and the Environment(Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
    28. Trimberger, E.K. (1978). Revolution from Above: Military Bureaucrats and Development in Japan, Turkey, Egypt, and Peru (New Brunswick, N, J, Transaction books.
    29. Weiss, L. & Hobson, J.M (1995). States and Economic Development (Cambridge, Polity).
    30. Wong, Evelin (2000). Partnership of the Trade Union in National Development Programmes and in Promotion of Labor Mobility in Singpore, International Labor Organization, International Institute for Labor Studies.
    31. Woo-Cumings .M. (1999b). Introduction: Chalmers Johnson and the politics of nationalism and development. In M. Woo-Cumings (ed.), The Developmental State (Itaca. NY. Cornell University Press).
    32. Yeo Lay Hwee (2002). Electoral Politics in Singapore, International Studies, Vol 43.