Multilevel model of participatory policy making

Document Type : Research Paper


Associate professor of Public Policy University of Tehran


One of the shortcomings of representative democracy is reduce the incentive for citizens to political participation. Analysts, actors and government representatives to grapple with this issue and seek answers to the question, how best can the participation of citizens in decision-making and policy-making process. According to our survey, although some recent studies have addressed the question of democratic policy participation, very few of them understand the nature, dynamics and characteristics of participatory methods and focus on institutional spaces that have been occurring in their participatory communications. It seems that facilitate and increase policy participation requires a new form of relationship between state and society. Institutional arrangements that can be levied at three levels substantive, procedural and the operational level. To facilitate and increase policy participation at all levels changes and developments it is necessary that each philosophy, mechanisms, arrangements and differences with each other.


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Volume 50, Issue 2
July 2020
Pages 423-446
  • Receive Date: 18 February 2017
  • Revise Date: 25 October 2017
  • Accept Date: 25 October 2017
  • First Publish Date: 21 June 2020