Peace-Oriented Development and Its Components

Document Type : Research Paper


Professor, Faculty of Law & Political Science, University of Tehran, Iran


Peace, democracy, and development are considered three important concepts in social science, and are extremely relevant to the problems of  both developed and developing countries. Nevertheless, the experiences of modern capitalist world with neo-liberal and market-oriented policies have shown that creating harmonious relations between state, society and economy is problematic and challenging. As a result, a large group of the poor people in the global community have not enjoyed the benefits of peace, democracy, and development. In fact, we are witnessing all kinds of problems such as insecurity, violence, war, extremism, authoritarianism, oppression, environmental problems, poverty and lack of welfare for the majority of nations in the international system. The root causes of these problems can be found in the philosophical foundations of modernity and capitalism in which concerns with peace, mortality, human rights, and environmental protection are left to market forces, and the state and non-state actors such as companies which are dependent on them.
The author intends to explore peace-oriented development as an alternative paradigm with a critical, holistic political economy approach in which the three pillars of state, capital, and civil society are linked together for all human beings both nationally and globally in order to deal with the problems related to peace, democracy and development. It is argued that development must address strategies for reduction of poverty, unemployment, and inequality at the national and global levels through structural change and industrialization. The achievement of development goals, however, requires a culture based on peace, tranquility, tolerance, fortitude, participation, rationality, as well as democratic institutional mechanisms.
In this paper, the author seeks to answer the following research questions: 1. What is the nature of peace-based development? 2. What elements does it consist of? 3. How can this model of development help democracy? Since peace, democracy and development are the three main pillars of the peace- at
based development paradigm, therefore, in the research hypothesis, it is argued that the constructive interaction of government, businesses, and civil society based on the peace-oriented development approach increases the probability of balanced development  and democracy at both national and global levels. Peace and security increase the chances of poverty reduction and welfare. Development through structural changes and industrialization leads to the eradication of poverty, and the reduction of unemployment and inequality at national and international levels. However, the realization of development goals requires the culture of peace and tolerance together with active civil society and robust social movements which work towards solving the socio-economic and political problems such as insecurity, gender inequality, environmental degradation with the help of strong institutional arrangements needed for creating a climate conducive to constructive change which is beneficial for all.
The findings suggest that using a holistic and critical approach which  takes into account the linkages between peace, development and democracy may help in ending the misery which continues to wreak havoc on the lives of the poor people in the world, particularly under conditions of uncertainty characterized by the failure of neoliberalism to deal with the persistent economic and political problems which have been intensified by the renewal of the great-power rivalry and the Covid-19 pandemic.


Arkoun, Mohammed. (2018) Rethinking Islam: Common Questions, Uncommon Answers, trans. Seyed Ahmad Movaseghi. Tehran: Rozaneh. [in Persian]
Bell, Daniel. (1976) The Cultural Contradiction of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books.
Bornschier, Volker. (2005) Culture and Politics in Economic Development. London & New York: Routledge.
Chang, Ha– Joon. (2004) Globalization, Economic Development and the Role of the State. London: Zed Books.
Dube, Shakontala. (2007) Modernization and Development, in Search for Alternative Paradigms, trans. Seyed Ahmad Movassaghi. Tehran: Qoms, 2nd ed. [in Persian]
Esposito,  John L. (2017) The Future of Islam, trans Mahdi Amini. Tehran: Sa’ales. [in Persian]
Galtung, Johan and Paul D. Scott. (2008 ) Democracy, Peace, Development. Oslo: Kolofon Press.
Griffin, Keith and Terry McKinley. (1994) Implementing a Human Development Strategy, trans Qolamreza Khajehsarvi. Tehran: Vedad. [in Persian]
Hardin, Russell. (2006) “Constitutionalism,” in Donald A. Wittman and Barry R. Weingast, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harrison, Lawrence E.; and Samuel P. Huntington. (2001) Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, trans. Iran’s Management Development Association. Tehran: Amir Kabir. [in Persian]
Haynes, Jeffrey. (2008) Development Studies. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Inglehart, Ronald Z; and Christian Wizel. (2005) Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leftwich, Adrian, ed. (1990) New Developments in Political Science: An International Review of Achievements and Prospects, trans. Seyed Ahmad Movaseghi. Tehran: Mizan [in Persian]
Mangabeira Unger, Roberto. (1976) Law in Modern Society. New York: The Free Press.
Miller, Raymond C. (2011) International Political Economy: Contrasting World Views, trans. Mohammad Ali Shirkhani, et al. Tehran: Samt. [in Persian]
Movaseghi, Seyed Ahmad. (2019) Peace, Security and Development. Tehran: University of Tehran Press, 3rd ed. [in Persian]
———. (2017)  “Developmental Transition in East Asia,” Politics Quarterly 47, 4: 1065-1083, <DOI: 10.22059/JPQ.2017.222068.1006977>. [in Persian]
———. (2016) Globalization, Nationalism and Development. Tehran: University of Tehran Press, 2nd ed. [in Persian]
———. (2012) Modernization and Political Development. Tehran: Mizan. [in Persian]
Olivius, Elizabeth; and Malin Åkebo. (2021) “Exploring Varieties of Peace: Advancing the Agenda,” Journal of Peacebuilding & Development 16, 1: 3-8, <DOI:10.1177/1542316621995641>.
Pieterse, Jan Nederveen. (2009) Development Theory. London and Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
———. (2017) Development Theory, trans. Anvar Mohammadi. Tehran: Golazin, 3rd ed. [in Persian]
Polanyi, Karl. (2001) The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon, 3rd ed.
Safi, Louay M. (2016) The Challenge of Modernity, trans. Seyed Ahmad Movaseghi. Tehran: Mizan. [in Persian]
Sen, Amartya. (2000) Development as Freedom, trans. Seyed Ahmad Movaseghi. Tehran: Faculty of Law & Political Science, University of Tehran Publishing. [in Persian]
Todaro, Michael P. (2007) Economic Development in the Third World, trans. Qolamali Farjadi. Tehran: Plan and Budget Organization of Iran.  [in Persian]
United Nations Development Program (UNDP). )(2020) Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier,  Human Development and the Anthropocene. New York: UN. Available at default/files/hdr2020.pdf (Accessed 10 March 2021).
Will, Albert. (1990) “Rational Choice and Political Analysis,” trans. Seyed Ahmad Movaseghi, in Adrian Leftwich, ed. New Developments in Political Science: An International Review of Achievements and Prospects. Aldershot, UK: Elgar [in Persian
Volume 51, Issue 2
September 2021
Pages 638-615
  • Receive Date: 09 March 2019
  • Revise Date: 29 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 15 September 2021
  • First Publish Date: 15 September 2021