Document Type : Research Paper
Professor, Department of Islamic Studies and Political Science, Imam Sadiq (PBUH) University, Tehran, Iran
A PhD Candidate, Department of Islamic Studies and Political Science, Imam Sadiq (PBUH) University, Tehran, Iran
The concept of power has been the focus of many studies in the social science in general, and in the political science in particular. This concept dates back to the creation of humankind because it is formed in the context of the interactions of human beings with the environment, including human and nonhuman communications. Because the concept of power is a contextual one, it has undergone significant changes throughout history. Power has evolved in line with technological changes, and additionally it has changed with the transformation of relations and social forms. Power has been explored in numerous studies in various fields of study. In the contemporary era, looking at the concept of power within the framework of postmodernism might enable the researchers to approach this abstract theoretical concept from a different but important angle. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to analyze the concept of power on the basis of the theory of complexity in the postmodern era. Thus, we examine the theoretical knowledge on the subject of power through understanding the concept power inpostmodern society within the framework of the theory of network complexity. Furthermore, the twin complementary goals are: a) understanding the evolution of power, and b) understanding the network complexity theory in quantum physics.
The central research question and the two subsidiary ones are respectively as follows: 1. How should power be analyzed within the framework of the theory of complexity of postmodern society? 2. How has the concept of power evolved? What are the implications of the network complexity theory for understanding the concept of power in the postmodern society? This research topic is important in two ways: a) As a theoretical@
research, it is an attempt to understand the subject of complexity in postmodern society together with the concept analysis of power, on the basis of a dynamic process that might become the focus of various other studies. B) As an applied research, it can be the useful for actors who intend to formulate an operational plan to enhance their power. Given the changing nature of new societies, ignoring the evolution of the nature of power can weaken the indigenous approach to politics and the rule of non-indigenous theories.
In the research hypothesis, it is claimed that power has become a contextual, fluid, and diffusing concept in the complex postmodern society that has changed the relevancy and the logic of applicability of this concept. With a descriptive-analytical approach, the method of comparative analysis of the previous research findings of quantum and complexity theorists has been used for hypothesis testing. The results indicate that based on the network complexity and quantum dimensions of social science in the postmodern era, the concept of power by coming out of vertical structures and going beyond the network status has changed into a fluid and complex concept, and for this reason its special functions have become meaningful in the context of network complexity. Moreover, it has greatly become highly dependent on data technologies and quantum gaming.
In this process, governments inevitably face the prospect of role change, and if they fail to establish a proper place for themselves, they will be left out of the social cycle of transformation, and perhaps the complex elements within the network will perform government functions more effectively. The power play and data are important for governments to be used for governance. In the quantum world, the states must enter the quantum game with power in a complex postmodern arena and implement data-driven governance. In the game, the next moves of the actors are not necessarily clear; and each actor, based on his systemic learning, must be ready to face any new action even though he might not know when and how it would happen. It is obvious that the elaboration and explanation of the moral and philosophical principles of nature are of great importance for the logical confrontation with this new space. There are two considerations for different societies when they face this space: first, they should have the required knowledge, and second, they must design indigenous frameworks by referring to their value systems and semantic foundations.