Meaning, Myth and Narrative in the Identity Policy of the Twenty-First Century

Document Type : Research Paper


Professor, Faculty of Law & Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



Identity is regarded as one of the fundamental elements of new political, regional, and international order. Identity forms have intertwined relationships with the history, culture, and past forms of action of a society. It is noteworthy that cultural signs are reproduced gradually and reflect a new form of political behavior. Identity accounts for a major part of the causes of political disputes between Iran and several states including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Yemen, and Ukraine. Accordingly, identity can be considered as the lost goods of the contemporary era, and it has had a considerable impact on the security policies of various countries.
The principal issue addressed in this study is that meaning, myth, and narratives have been ignored in the identity policymaking processes, particularly at the social, national, and regional levels. The main research questions to be answered in the present paper are as follows: 1. What were the features of the identity policy in the third decade of the twenty-first century? 2. How can they set the stage for stability and balance? In the hypothesis, the authors argue that “the identity policy is based on the knowledge of the forms of cultural, historical, and ideological conflicts of the actors, and results from the mechanisms based on the intersubjective interactions. In order to find answers to the questions, we rely on the constructivist approach and Alain Touraine’s new paradigm for the analysis of works by several prominent scholars. Using the method of conceptual analysis, we attempt to delineate the signs of meaning, myth, and narrative in the twenty-first century’s identity policy. The findings of this study are related to the paradigms of identity, media, and network society policies which can pave the way for increasing the power of some countries, but they can also be signs of security threats for others. The paper’s innovation concerns the effect of narrative and mythic signs on the identity policy.


Main Subjects

  1. الف) فارسی 

    1. اجلالی، پرویز. (1398) نابخردی انسان؛ کاوشی در آرا و نظریه‌های ویلفردو پارتو. تهران: اندیشه.
    2. افتخاری، اصغر. (1385) کالبدشکافی تهدید. تهران: دانشکده و پژوهشکده فرمانده ستاد علوم دفاعی.
    3. آلیسون، گراهام. (1399) جنگ محتوم؛ آیا آمریکا و چین میتوانند از تله توسیدید بگریزند، ترجمه رحمت حاجی‌مینه و محمد عابدی. تهران: ابرار معاصر.
    4. اندرسون، تیم. (1396) جنگ کثیف در سوریه؛ واشنگتن تغییر رژیم و مقاومت، ترجمه مهدی هدایتی شهیدانی. رشت: دانشگاه گیلان.
    5. برزگر، کیهان. (1397، زمستان) «راهبرد سیاست خارجی ایران در توازن قوای منطقه‌ای،» فصلنامه مطالعات راهبردی، 21، 4: 183-206. در:
    6. بروک، لوتار؛ و دیگران. (1394) دولتهای شکننده؛ جامعهشناسی جنگ و منازعه در دوران مدرن، ترجمه احمد رشیدی. تهران: امیرکبیر.
    7. بوزان، باری. (1389) «مشکل امنیت ملی در جهان سوم،» در ادوارد آزر و چونگ این مون، امنیت ملی در جهان سوم، ترجمه پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردی. تهران: پژوهشکده مطالعات راهبردی.
    8. تورن، آلن. (1396) پارادایم جدید، ترجمه سلمان صادقی‌زاده. تهران: امیرکبیر.
    9. جونز، ریچارد. (1390) «بازسازی مفهوم امنیت،» در ساموئل هانتینگتون و دیگران، ناگفتههای سیاست بین‌الملل، ترجمه عسگر قهرمان‌پور. تهران: دفتر علم.
    10. دورکیم، امیل. (1401) قواعد روش جامعه‌شناسی، ترجمه هوشنگ نایبی. تهران: آگاه.
    11. کاستلز، مانوئل. (1393) شبکههای خشم و امید؛ جنبشهای اجتماعی در عصر اینترنت، ترجمه مجتبی قلی‌پور. تهران: نشر مرکز.
    12. کوهن، سائول. (1387) ژئوپلیتیک نظام جهانی، ترجمه عباس کاردان. تهران: ابرار معاصر.
    13. لوئیس، برنارد. (1398) ایمان و قدرت؛ دین و سیاست در خاورمیانه، ترجمه جعفر محسنی دره‌بیدی. تهران: آشیان.
    14. نیاکوئی، سید امیر. (1391) کالبدشکافی انقلابهای معاصر در جهان عرب. تهران: میزان.

    ب) انگلیسی       

    1. Allagui, Ilhem; and Johanne Kuebler. (2011) “The Arab Spring and the Role of ICTs,” International Journal of Communication 5:1435-1442. Available at: (Accessed 2 June 2022).
    2. Amenta, Edwin, et al. (2010) “The Political Consequences of Social Movements,” Annual Review of Sociology36, 1: 287-307, <DOI:10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-120029>.
    3. Calderaro, Andrea; and Anthony J. S. Craig. (2020) “Transnational Governance of Cybersecurity: Policy Challenges and Global Inequalities in Cyber Capacity Building,” Third World Quarterly 41, 6: 917-938, .
    4. Churchill, Owen. (2021, February 5) “President Biden Described China as the “Most Serious Competitor” to the Unites States,” South China Morning. Available at: (Accessed 1 March 2022).
    5. Dzarasov, Ruslan; and Victoria Gritsenko. (2020) “Colors of a Revolution; Post-Communist Society, Global Capitalism and the Ukraine Crisis,” Third World Quarterly41, 8: 1289-1305, <DOI:10.1080/01436597.2020.1732202>.
    6. Hart, Jonathan. (2008) Empires and Colonies. Malden: Polity Press.
    7. Howard, Philip. (2011) The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    8. Huisken, Ron. (2021, December 9) “America and China: Seeking an Updated Foundation for Enduring Engagement,” Pacific Forum (PacNet 56). Canberra, Australia: Council for Security Cooperation in the Asia Pacific Press. Available at: (Accessed 11 July 2022).
    9. Jones, Richard. (1999) Security Strategy and Critical Theory. New York: Lynne Renner Publisher.
    10. Kaplan, Robert D. (2017, August 13) “America's Darwinian Nationalism,” National Interest. Available at: (Accessed 18 June 2021).
    11. Kaplan, Robert D. (2014, March 6) “The Lure of Nationalism,” Real Clear World. Available at: 06/the_ lure_ of_nationalism.html (Accessed 18 June 2021).
    12. Marks, Stephen R. (1974) “Durkheim’s Theory of Anomie,” American Journal of Sociology 80, 2: 329-363. Available at: (Accessed 18 June 2021).
    13. Moore, Richard. (2021) “Human Intelligence in the Digital Age- Speech by Richard Moore, Chief of the UK’s Secret Intelligence Service,” IISS ( Available at: (Accessed 11 July 2022).
    14. Mosalanejhad, Abbas. (2019), “US Comparative Policy toward Iran and the Middle East,” Geopolitics Quarterly14, 52: 1-20. Available at: (Accessed 2 June 2022).
    15. Manual of Political Economy, trans. Ann S. Schwier. London, UK: MacMillan.
    16. Pareto, Vilfredo. (1897) “The New Theories of Economics,” Journal of Political Economy 5, 4: 485-502. Available at: (Accessed 12 July 2021).
    17. Parsons, Talcott. (1967) The Structure of Social Action. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    18. Posen, Adam S. (2021, May-June) “The Price of Nostalgia America’s Self-Defeating Economic Retreat,” Foreign Affairs100, 3: 28-43. Available at: (Accessed 11 July 2022).
    19. Volpi, Frédéric; and Johannes Gerschewski. (2020) “Crises and Critical Junctures in Authoritarian Regimes: Addressing Uprisings’ Temporalities and Discontinuities," Third World Quarterly 41, 6: 1030-1045, .
    20. Wagner, Ben. (2011) “I Have Understood You: The Co-evolution of Expression and Control on the Internet, Television and Mobile Phones During the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia,” International Journal of Communication 5: 1295- Available at: (Accessed 18 June 2021).