The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is developing into a major regional institution in the heart of Central Eurasia. To make any predictions about the SCO, one must examine factors contributing to Russian and Chinese foreign policy behaviors in Central Asia. Does the seductive presumption of a looming battle for control of Eurasia smell of a new “Great Game” and great power rivalry? Answering this question requires knowing how its 2 key players, Russia and China, view the SCO. This Article delves deeper into what is driving Russian and Chinese interests in Central Asia, and thus the SCO. This causes to formed the Soft Balances against the U.S.