عنوان مقاله [English]
In theoretical field, one of the most important science policy issues in Iranian society is the political implications of chaos. One can say for sure that even in the most turbulent political sciences, the concept of "state" exists. In practical area, one of the most practical obstacles to the development of civil society in Iran's modern history is the stability of the "difference" between "nation" and "state". The word "state" in ancient literature and today’s written and spoken language has a variety of applications. However, due to ambiguity inherent in contemporary legal and political language in this area, it is necessary to address this shortcoming and to clarify the concept of "state" as far as possible. This in turn suggests the need to recognize that the concept of "state" was a political thought in middle and old age. Therefore, in this paper we attempt to illustrate the concept of "state" in the political thought of the Middle and old ages. In this paper, the applied method is discourse. Among all the theories of discourse, discourse theory of Lakla and Mouffe takes a special place. The present study attempts to use the components presented in Lakla and Mouffe's theory of discourse, to review the concept of "state" in the political thought of the Middle and old (pre-Safavie) ages.