سیاست همسایگی اروپا و تأثیر آن بر توسعۀ سیاسی جمهوری مولداوی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار مطالعات منطقه‎ای دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مولداوی مرز شرقی میان اتحادیۀ اروپا و جهان خارج است و همین مسئله، سبب اهمیت ژئوپلیتیک این کشور کوچک شده است. همکاری میان اتحادیۀ اروپا و مولداوی پس از استقلال این کشور آغاز شد. از سال ۲۰۰۹ مولداوی خود را متعهد به تبعیت از استانداردهای اتحادیۀ اروپا کرد. این تبعیت، در قالب سیاست همسایگی اروپا و طرح مشارکت شرقی متبلور شد. پیوند میان دو بازیگر با انعقاد موافقت‎نامۀ همکاری به اوج خود رسید. ذیل این سیاست‎ها، مولداوی دست به اصلاحات اساسی در ساختار نهادی خود زد تا بتواند به سطح استانداردهای اروپایی نزدیک شود. در واقع سیاست همسایگی اروپا، در پی راهی برای تحریک انگیزۀ کشورهای عضو در جهت همگرایی با اروپاست. پژوهش حاضر درصدد پاسخگویی به این پرسش است که اجرای سیاست همسایگی اروپا و به‌طور مشخص طرح مشارکت شرقی، چه تأثیری بر وضعیت توسعۀ سیاسی در این کشور داشته است. در پاسخ می‎توان این فرضیه را مطرح کرد که سیاست همسایگی اروپا در قالب اصل مشروط بودن و اصل جامعه‌پذیری، سبب اعمال فشارهایی در جهت اجرای اصلاحات سیاسی در مولداوی شده است؛ اما تأثیر توسعه‎ای این سیاست‎ها سطحی و غیرفراگیر بوده است. برای آزمون این فرضیه از نظریۀ اروپایی شدن ِفرانک شیملفنینگ استفاده شده است. نظریۀ اروپایی شدن، ابزاری به‌منظور درک تغییرات داخلی مولداوی و روند توسعۀ آن است.

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