عنوان مقاله [English]
Examining the Reasons Behind Deepening Coptic-Muslim Cleavage in Egypt Based On Migdal’s Theory
Violence against the Egyptian Orthodox Christian Community-The Copts-has been increasing since the 1970s and especially following 2011 revolution. This research aims to examine the reasons behind the deepening Coptic-Muslim cleavages and in line with this, the relations between the Coptic community and the Egyptian state in different periods since Anwar Sadat came to power in 1970 until the present time is examined based on the “State in Society” theoretical framework which was provided by Joel. S. Migdal. Examining the cases of violence against Copts by the majority Muslim population under Sadat, Mubarak leadership and since the 2011 revolution to date showed that the main cause would seem to be the lack of a strong state and state institutions that can guarantee all citizens’ constitutional rights while the presence of strong social forces and a fragmented social control. Over the last five decades the Egyptian leaders have pursued survival strategies and have become a big part of the problem by practicing divide and rule policy to survive in a fragmented society. Thus, we reached to the conclusion the Migdal theory can be applied to other cases of religious and ethnic cleavages elsewhere in the third world.
Keywords: Egypt, Coptic-Muslim Cleavage, Religious Strife, Weak State, Strong Social Forces, The Politics of Survival, Survival Strategies
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