بررسی علل تعمیق شکاف قبطی-مسلمان در مصر بر پایۀ نظریۀ میگدال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد مطالعات منطقه‌ای دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری مطالعات خاورمیانه دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

10.22059/jpq.2020.239803.1007129

چکیده

جامعة مسیحیان ارتدکس مصر که با نام قبطی شناخته می‌شوند، از دهة ۱۹۷۰ به بعد و به‌ویژه بعد از انقلابی که حسنی مبارک را سرنگون کرد، هدف خشونت و تبعیض بوده‌اند. هدف اصلی این مقاله درک علل تعمیق شکاف مذهبی بین مسیحیان قبطی و اکثریت مسلمان در مصر معاصر است. در این زمینه، وضعیت قبطیان از زمان به قدرت رسیدن سادات در سال ۱۹۷۰ تاکنون با تمرکز بر موارد اصلی خشونت و حمله به قبطیان بررسی شده است. چارچوب نظری در این نوشتار نظریة «دولت در جامعه» جوئل اس. میگدال برای تبیین علل تعمیق شکاف است. بررسی موضوع مورد مطالعه نشان داد که علت اصلی عمیق‌ شدن این شکاف‌ها از سال ۱۹۷۰، سستی و ناتوانی دولت مصر در کنترل جامعه و برعکس نیرومند بودن گروه‌های اجتماعی در مصر و ساختار چندپارة جامعه بوده است. در پنج دهة گذشته رهبران مصر یک سیاست بقا به‌منظور حفظ قدرت خود در محیط چندپاره را دنبال کرده‌اند و به‌جای تلاش برای پرکردن شکاف قبطی-مسلمان، خود در موارد بسیاری سیاست تفرقه بینداز و حکومت کن را در پیش گرفته‌اند و ازاین‌رو دولت خود به بخش بزرگی از مسئلة قبطی‌ها تبدیل شده است. به باور نویسندگان، نظریة میگدال می‌تواند به‌خوبی علت شکاف‌های قومی و مذهبی مختلف دیگر در جوامع جهان سوم را هم تبیین کند.

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